Database Management Basics

Database management is the method to manage information that is essential to the company’s business operations. It involves storing data, disseminating it to applications and users, editing it as needed and monitoring changes to data and preventing data corruption due to unexpected failure. It is a part of the overall infrastructure of a company that supports decision making and corporate growth as well as compliance with laws like the GDPR and the California Consumer Privacy Act.

The first database systems were created in the 1960s by Charles Bachman, IBM and others. They evolved into information management systems (IMS), which allowed massive amounts of data to be stored and retrieved for a range of reasons. From calculating inventory to supporting complex financial accounting functions as well as human resource functions.

A database consists of a set of tables that organize data according to some schema, such as one-to many relationships. It utilizes primary key to identify records, and also allows cross-references among tables. Each table contains a number of fields, called attributes, which provide information about the data entities. Relational models, invented by E. F. “TedCodd Codd in the 1970s at IBM and IBM, are the most widely used type of database currently. This model is based on normalizing the data, making it more easy to use. It is also simpler to update data because it does not require the changing of certain sections of the database.

The majority of DBMSs are able to support different types of databases by offering different levels of external and internal organization. The internal level concerns cost, scalability, as well as other operational issues, like the physical layout of the database. The external level is the representation of the database in user interfaces and applications. It can include a combination of different external views (based on different data models) and may include virtual tables that are computed from data that is generic to enhance performance.

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